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The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and the example of the first Atlantic Revolutions generated criticism of the absolutist monarchy that ruled the country.
As in the rest of Spanish America, the overthrow of Ferdinand VII during the Peninsular War created great concern.
Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, and retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs.
Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, and membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies.
The second group are advanced hunters and food gatherers which include the Puelche, Querandí and Serranos in the center-east; and the Tehuelche in the south—all of them conquered by the Mapuche spreading from Chile the advanced Diaguita sedentary trading culture in the northwest, which was conquered by the Inca Empire around 1480; the Toconoté and Hênîa and Kâmîare in the country's center, and the Huarpe in the center-west, a culture that raised llama cattle and was strongly influenced by the Incas.
Europeans first arrived in the region with the 1502 voyage of Amerigo Vespucci.
The Spanish navigators Juan Díaz de Solís and Sebastian Cabot visited the territory that is now Argentina in 15, respectively.
'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, and now the country is simply referred to as "Argentina".
One year later General Martín Miguel de Güemes stopped royalists on the north, and General José de San Martín took an army across the Andes and secured the independence of Chile; then he led the fight to the Spanish stronghold of Lima and proclaimed the independence of Peru.
The 1820 Battle of Cepeda, fought between the Centralists and the Federalists, resulted in the end of the Supreme Director rule.
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine ("La [República] Argentina"), taking the feminine article "La" as the initial syllable of "Argentina" is unstressed.
The first group are basic hunters and food gatherers without development of pottery, such as the Selknam and Yaghan in the extreme south.