Books dating publications

Before the invention of writing, perhaps by the Sumerians in the 4th millennium , information could be spread only by word of mouth, with all the accompanying limitations of place and time.

Writing was originally regarded not as a means of disseminating information but as a way to fix religious formulations or to secure codes of law, genealogies, and other socially important matters, which had previously been committed to memory.

In 1498, for instance, 18,000 letters of indulgence were printed at Barcelona.

The market for books was still small, but literacy had spread beyond the clergy and had reached the emerging middle classes.

Freedom of the press was pursued and attacked for the next three centuries; but by the end of the 18th century a large measure of freedom had been won in western Europe and North America, and a wide range of printed matter was in circulation.

The mechanization of printing in the 19th century and its further development in the 20th, which went hand in hand with increasing literacy and rising standards of education, finally brought the printed word to its powerful position as a means of influencing minds and, hence, societies.

The church, the state, universities, reformers, and radicals were all quick to use the press.

Not surprisingly, every kind of attempt was made to control and regulate such a “dangerous” new mode of communication.

Publishing as it is known today depends on a series of three major inventions—writing, paper, and printing—and one crucial social development—the spread of literacy.Gutenberg’s achievement was not a single invention but a whole new craft involving movable metal type, ink, paper, and press.In less than 50 years it had been carried through most of Europe, largely by German printers. It grew from the climate and needs of the first, and it fought in the battles of the second.There is more than enough help for managing your emotions, watching your words, and bearing spiritual fruit.She challenges you with ways to center your life around this important task.

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