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As far back as 2009 experts published a letter warning: Their letter gave research details on over a dozen serious diseases which CCR5-Δ32 makes us more likely to catch and/or die from. In response to this, here is what two experts said about the ‘double-edged sword’ nature of CCR5-Δ32: This all goes to reinforce our biblical creationist perspective that living organisms are phenomenally complex, mutations mainly damage information, and adaptations that may be advantageous in a particular special environment (e.g.
Despite a proliferation of further published research since then on the risks (and benefits) of CCR5-Δ32, one scientist undertook to permanently edit this mutation into living human genomes! the presence of a particular disease) are still likely to be disadvantageous generally.
The CCR5-delta32 mutation is strongly associated with a chronic and potentially life-threatening liver disease: As to be expected time was not kind to the reputation of the CCR5-delta32 mutation.
Once thought to have no negative side effects, further research uncovered both new functions performed by CCR5 and new risks associated with CCR5-Δ32.
C-C chemokine receptor type 5, also known as CCR5 or CD195, is a protein on the surface of white blood cells that is involved in the immune system as it acts as a receptor for chemokines.
In humans, the CCR5 gene that encodes the CCR5 protein is located on the short (p) arm at position 21 on chromosome 3.
The co-receptor also recognizes the V1-V2 region of gp120 and the bridging sheet (an antiparallel, 4-stranded β sheet that connects the inner and outer domains of gp120).
Maraviroc was approved for use by the FDA in August 2007.
A problem of this approach is that, while CCR5 is the major co-receptor by which HIV infects cells, it is not the only such co-receptor.
It is possible that under selective pressure HIV will evolve to use another co-receptor.
This bind results in gp41, the other protein product of gp160, to be released from its metastable conformation and insert itself into the membrane of the host cell.
Although it has not been confirmed, binding of gp120-CCR5 involves two crucial steps: 1) The tyrosine-sulfated amino terminus of this co-receptor is an "essential determinant" of binding to gp120 (as stated previously) 2) Following step 1., there must be reciprocal action (synergy, intercommunication) between gp120 and the CCR5 transmembrane domains.