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La conclusion d’ensemble est que si les « experts » ont de l’influence, ils le doivent davantage à leur statut qu’au contenu de leur expertise.Max Weber était lui-même ambivalent à propos de l’importance de l’expertise et il est probable que la fonction qu’on lui prête – celle de renforcer les rôles bureaucratiques dans la fabrication des politiques publiques – ait été exagérée.In each tableau the significance of expertise as a source of influence can be questioned.Where “experts” have influence, it is because of their rather than the content of their expertise.It is frequently assumed that the expertise of bureaucrats gives them policy-making power.

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For Max Weber the expert, trained bureaucrat is indispensable to modern government and this indispensability leads to the “continually growing power position” of the state bureaucracy in modern politics (Weber, 1972, p. “The power position of all bureaucrats rests on knowledge” (Weber, 1972, p. The “specialist trained 1 is superior in technical matters to the minister” (Weber, 1972, p. “There is the continual question: who will govern the bureaucratic apparatus?These range from the Marxist Burnhamite view of the rise of the manager (Burnham, 1942) to the sociological power-dependence approach popular in the 1960s and 1970s (Crozier and Friedberg, 1981), in which the power position of the bureaucrat arose from the dependence of the politician on the expertise of the bureaucrat, through to the neo-Marxist arguments of the 1970s and 1980s where, according to Nicos A.Poulantzas (1975), the role of technocrats was critical in resolving conflicts and contradictions within different sectors of the bourgeoisie and capital, to the literature on corporatism (Schmitter, 1974).Another problem is that working out whether a particular group or individual is powerful is hard enough, working out whether they are powerful because of one particular characteristic –here their expertise– rather than another, even more so.And then there are the large number of variables surrounding the deployment of expertise that might be expected to shape whether expertise gave the bureaucrat power in that particular circumstance: was the bureaucrat the sole source of expertise or was s/he one expert among many, did the experts agree or disagree, were the experts under contract or otherwise influenced by the bureaucrats, and were the “expert” bureaucrats also politicised, possibly using their expertise to justify the conclusions reached or desired by their political masters?

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