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It is also linked to the breakdown of the immune surveillance system of the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier caused by the depletion of mucosal CD4 The CDC's classification system is more frequently adopted in developed countries.
Since the WHO's staging system does not require laboratory tests, it is suited to the resource-restricted conditions encountered in developing countries, where it can also be used to help guide clinical management.
In addition to improving current disease, treatment with antiretrovirals reduces the risk of developing additional opportunistic infections.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (Pr EP) with a daily dose of the medications tenofovir, with or without emtricitabine, is effective in people at high risk including men who have sex with men, couples where one is HIV positive, and young heterosexuals in Africa.
Many species of mammals are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period.
Lentiviruses are transmitted as single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA viruses.
The World Health Organization recommends treating all children less than 5 years of age; children above 5 are treated like adults.
Measures to prevent opportunistic infections are effective in many people with HIV/AIDS.